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INTRODUCTORY  ESSAY.                                 209
hul is probably very scanty, and nearly Tibetan in character;
but pines occur even up to 11,000, and it is far more fertile
than any Tibetan province* The bed of the Chenab is pro-
bably nowhere below 8500 feet elevation, and the plants must
therefore be all temperate and alpine. A wild yellow Persian,
rose, a variety of R. eglanteria, here finds its eastern limit.
Kishtwar includes the middle course of the Chenab valley
between Labul and Jamu. It is separated on the north from
the Tibetan valleys of Zanskar and Dras by the axis of the
Himalaya, which is crossed by the TJmasi Pass into Zanskar,
elevated 18,000 feet; and by other passes, from Wardwan
into Dras, at scarcely l<*ss elevations. The district of Ward-
wan to the west occupies the eastern slopes of the range
which separates Kishtwar from Kashmir, and is crossed by
theNabagnai Pass, of undetermined elevation, and probably by
several others. To the south, Kishtwar is separated from the
Chamba province by a range of 10-14,000 feet elevation, al-
luded to under that province. The boundary between Kisht-
war and Jamu to the south-west is not defined. *
The clirnate^nd vegetation of Kishtwar, like those of Ku-
nawar, with which they are identical, ard in all respects inter-
mediate in general features between those of the plainward
Himala}'*,) provinces and of Tibet; and in more local ones
between those of the provinces occupying the lower and upper
course of the Chenab (Jamu-and Lahul) on the one hand, and
between Kashmir and these on the other. The elevation of
the Chenab at abort the middle of the province is from 6000
to 7000 feet, and there is hence scarcely any type of tropical
vegetation, except Paliurus, Desmodium, and Pomegranates.
In entering Kishtwar by the Chamba province a marked
change occurs in the vegetation, from the prevalence of a
mixture of Kashmir and Kunawar plants which are. rare or
not found in the provinces skirting the plains, as a tall pani-
culate Rheum, many Umbellifer&: Silene inflata, Geranium^ and